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Web URL(s):https://archive.lib.msu.edu/tic/ressum/2021/2021.pdf#page=255
    Last checked: 04/13/2022
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Author(s):Wherley, Benjamin; Bowling, Will; McInnes, Kevin; Provin, Tony; Segars, Chrissie
Author Affiliation:Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
Title:Long-term dynamics and management requirements of sand-capped fairways
Section:Interated turfgrass management
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Ecophysiology: Water
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Source:Mike Davis Program for Advancing Golf Course Management: 2021 Progress Reports. 2021, p. 248-255.
Publishing Information:[New York, New York]: The United States Golf Association Green Section
# of Pages:8
See Also:Other Reports from this USGA research project: 2018-08-658
USGA Summary Points:Although traditional soil physical testing methods would sugest use of an 8 inch sand-cap based on the particle size distribution of this sand, the highest overall turf quality levels were associated with shallower sand-capping treatment depths of 2 and 4 inches (6 to 7 out of 9, respectively). The 8 inch capping depth generally produced lower turf quality levels, at times dropping to unacceptable levels (4 out of 9) (Fig. 1). The highest soil volumetric water contents within the upper sand-cap (0-3 in. depth) was associated with topdressed over time (TD 2 in.) treatments (30% VWC). The 2 and 4 inch capping depths exhibited intermediate soil moisture levels (~18-19% VWC), while the 8 inch capping depth supported the least moisture (~13%). Although water droplet penetration time (WDPT) tests performed in previous years had shown moderate to severe hydrophobicity (at 0.5" depth) within the 8-inch sand-capping depth treatments, the 2020 data showed more widespread, but minimal levels of hydophobicity across all capping depths (Fig. 3). Based on data from subsoil SAR tests performed during October 2020, both gypsum treatments offered significant reductions in subsoil SAR (SAR = 10.1 and 9.6, respectively for 10 lbs. monthly and 100 lbs annually) relative to thenon-gypsum treatments (SAR= 12.5). While statistically significant, these reductions may not be considered to be agronomically beneficial, and highlight the imporance of additional strategies for mitigating subsoil Na accumulation . (Fig. 4). In the clay loam subsoil study, secondary cultural management treatments did not lead to any statistically significant differences in visual turf quality during the 2020 season (data not shown). However, there was a significant effect of sand-capping depth on turf quality, with shallower (0-4") capping depths having generally higher TQ than the 8" capping depth. (Figure 5) Final surface organic matter levels (0-2"), measured during the 2020 season, generally declined with increasing secondary cultural intensity. The highest %OM (5.4%) was noted in the 8" sand-cap receiving no secondary cultural inputs, while the lowest %OM (4.3%) was associated with the 'verticutting + core aeration' treatment. (Figure 6)
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Wherley, B., W. Bowling, K. McInnes, T. Provin, and C. Segars. 2021. Long-term dynamics and management requirements of sand-capped fairways. USGA Turfgrass Environ. Res. Summ. p. 248-255.
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    Last checked: 04/13/2022
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