Full TGIF Record # 221
Item 1 of 1
Material Type:Book
Monographic Author(s):Cubbon, M. H.; Markuson, M. J.
Author Affiliation:Cubbon: Assistant Professor of Agronomy; and Markuson: Assistant Professor, Massachusetts State College
Monograph Title:Soil Management for Greenkeepers, 1933.
# of Pages:148
Publishing Information:[Amherst, Massachusetts State College]
Collation:5-152 pp.
Evaluative Review:Appears in Journal of the American Society of Agronomy, 25(5) May 1933, pg. 363
Appears in The National Greenkeeper and Turf Culture, 7(7) July 1933, pg. 14
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Soils; Soil management; Soil properties; Organic matter; Acidity; Nutrients; Nitrogen; Fertilizers; Golf greens; Golf fairways; Irrigation; Weed control; Drainage; Soil profiles
Abstract/Contents:Includes: Part One (Chapter 1 (General Make-Up of Soils; Characteristics of Sand and Clay; Classification of Soils; Variations Due to Weathering and Parent Material; Judging the Qualities of Soils; Testing for Fertility; and Heating Loam); Chapter 2 (Fundamentals of Chemistry; Elements and Their Behavior; Chemical Abbreviations and Combinations; Inorganic and Organic Compounds; Behavior of Compounds (Acids, Bases, Salts); Measurements of Acidity in Soil; Testing Outfits; Meaning of pH Value; Summary of Elements; Weights and Measures; and Definition of Terms); Chapter 3 (Plant Nutrients and Soil Acidity. Elements Needed by Plants; Effects of Different Elements on Growth of Plants; Soil Acidity and Its Effects on Soluble Plant Food and General Soil Conditions. Correcting Soil Acidity; and Making Soils Purposefully Acid); Chapter 4 (Effects of Organic Matter on Soils; and Water Capacity, Physical Condition, Soluble Plant Food, and Source of Energy for Bacteria. Possible Harmful Effects. How to Increase Organic Matter. Use of Charcoal); Chapter 5 (Nitrogen Changes in Soil. Why Changes Are Necessary; What Produces the Changes; and Factors Which Limit the Rate of Change. Soil Inoculation); Chapter 6 (General Considerations in Fertilizers. Nitrogen Versus Ammonia; Use of Concentrated Fertilizers; Calculation of Fertilizer Values; Average Plant Food Costs; Fertilizer Control Laws and Services; Amount of Organic Material in Mixed Fertilizers; Testing of Fertilizer Materials; and Summary); Chapter 7 (Fertilization of Golf Greens; Possible Over-Fertilization; How Much to Fertilize; Importance of Phosphorus; Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers; Suggested Mixtures for the Individual Course; and Amounts of Fertilizer to Supply One Pound of Actual Plant Food); Chapter 8 (Fertilization of Fairways. General Requirements; Suggested Mixtures; What to Not Mix; Time to Fertilize; Inorganic Versus Organic Fertilizers; and Actual Fact Versus Popular Opinion. Field Experiments of the U. S. Golf Assocation); Chapter 9 (Watering Greens; Time and Amount; Difficulties Due to Overwatering; General Recommendations; and Tramping Plus Overwatering A Severe Test); and Chapter 10 (Use of Weed Killers and Other Poisons. Possible Permanent Injury to Soil; Arsenical and Mercurial Compounds; Naphthalene; and Materials for Killing Weeds and Effects on Soils. How to Dissolve Mercury Quickly)); and Part Two (Chapter 1 (Introduction. Causes for Wet Lands; Remedies; Tile; Construction Methods; Suggested Depth; Gravel Coverings; Hardpan; Quicksands; Grad; Tile Sizes; Spacing; and Summary); Chapter 2 (Engineering Methods. Instruments; Tape; Tile Systems; and The Outlet); and Chapter 3 (Profile Leveling. Datumn Plane; Turning Point; Elevations; Plotting; Grade Line; Batter Boads; Plow; Outlet; Silt Basins; Inspection; Drainage; and Refiling Trenches)).
Library of Congress
Subject Headings:
Soils; Golf courses
Note:Pictures, b/w
Annotation from Turfgrass History and Literature: Lawns, Sports, and Golf, by James B Beard, Harriet J. Beard and James C Beard:"This is a truly rare book that is a must for collectors of historical turfgrass books. It is one of the earliest books devoted solely to soils, soil chemistry, drainage, fertilization, irrigation, and pesticides as related to turfgrasses for golf course greens and fairways. It was a unique book in its time and a first of its kind in terms of being science based. It was written in two parts, with the back one-third of the book devoted to golf course drainage, as authored by Miner J. Markuson. The chapter subject titles include the following:

Part I
1. General Make-Up of Soils
2. Fundamentals of Chemistry
3. Plant Nutrients and Soil Acidity
4. Effects of Organic Matter on Soils
5. Nitrogen Changes in Soils
6. General Considerations in Fertilizers
7. Fertilization of Golf Greens
8. Fertilization of Fairways
9. Watering Greens
10. Use of Weed Killers and Other Poisons

Part II
1. Golf Course
2. Engineering Methods
3. Profile Leveling

Dr. Cubbons observations on two ideas being promoted for use on golf courses in the United States in the 1930s were as follows:

Heating loam to kill weed seeds apparently gives satisfactory results in more cases than it fails. Whether the practice is economical can best be answered by the individual greenkeeper. I can see no real good reason for heating loam as a general plan. Weed seeds may be killed by the process, and some probably are. Heating soil generally increases the amount of soluble plant food in that soil. So when heated loam is used with good results, the question at once comes up, is the better growth of grass due to fewer weeds or to more soluble nitrogen and other plant food. If the good effects from heated loam are due to plant food, then why not add plant food directly? In most cases plant food in the form of fertilizers is much cheaper than in heated loam. Usually if grass grows thickly enough no weeds can get in. Better concentrate on the grass and let the weeds die a natural death. Beware of all culture and preparations put on the market for the purpose of inoculating soils. First of all, the numbers of active organisms in such cultures are often too low to be worth while. Secondly, why try to grow legumes, or to induce them to get started, when nitrogen in ordinary fertilizers costs less? And thirdly, soils receive all the inoculation they need from dust blowing, from players tramping the course, and from additions of compost or topdressing. Soils are usually well supplied with organisms, but have too little energy material for the organisms to work on. Instead of buying inoculation, better buy food for the bacteria that are already there. Such food consists of organic matter and mineral elements, the same as plants need."

"If water is present in large amounts, it fills the air spaces and stops plant roots from seeking food at greater depths. Then in a dry year the plants are not able to adjust themselves quickly enough to get necessary moisture for normal growth. Continuous tramping over a wet area produces a hard imervious condition which discourages plant growth. This action is called puddling. If air is present, the pudding process is not serious." p. 201, 279
Beard Section Heading:Bibliography of books/monographs on turfgrass culture
Beard Rarity Statement:Truly rare
Beard Special Note:Identified by James B Beard in Turfgrass History and Literature: Lawns, Sports, and Golf (2014) as being old and rare based on his experience.
Annotation from
Golf Course Design,
by Geoffrey S. Cornish and Michael J. Hurdzan:
"Cubbon was an assistant professor of agronomy and Markuson was an assistant professor of Agriculture engineering at Massachusetts State College. This was probably the first textbook specifically on soils, written for greenkeepers. It was the definitive text of its day and covered not only the science of soils, including chapters on 'Fertilization of Golf Greens', 'Fertilization of Fairways' and 'Watering Greens'. The final chapters were devoted to teaching basic Agricultural engineering skills." p. 116-117
Cornish & Hurdzan Ratings:C2; M3; H4
See Also:Other items relating to: Classic Reads in Turf
Quotable quotes"
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Cubbon, M. H. 1933. Soil Management for Greenkeepers. 5-152 pp. [Amherst, Massachusetts State College].
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