Full TGIF Record # 232551
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Monographic Author(s):Riordan, Terrance P.; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Baxendale, Fred; Gaussoin, Roch; Wit, Leonard A.; Rodgers, Charles A.; Giese, Matthew; Horst, G. L.; Grisso, R. D.; Watkins, J. E.; Jensen, S. G.; Yuen, G. Y.; Klucas, R. V.; Shearman, R. C.; Weinhold, T. P.; Witkowski, J. W.; Westerholt, S. R.; Heng, T. M.
Author Affiliation:Riordan: Professor, Turfgrass Breeding; Johnson-Cicalese: Project Coordinator, USGA Buffalograss Project; Baxendale: Assistant Professor, Entomology; Gaussoin: Assistant Professor, Extension Turfgrass Specialist; Wit: Supervisor, JSA Turfgrass Research Facility; Rodgers and Giese: Graduate Student; Horst: Cooperator, Associate Professor, Turfgrass Physiology; Grisso: Cooperator, Asst. Professor, Biological Systems Engineering; Watkins: Cooperator, Professor, Plant Pathology; Jensen: Cooperator, Associate Professor, Plant Pathology; Yuen: Cooperator, Assistant Professor, Plant Pathology; Klucas: Cooperator, Professor, Biochemistry; Shearman: Cooperator, Professor, Horticulture; Weinhold: Cooperator, Technician, Entomology; Witkowski and Westerholt: Cooperator, Technician, Horticulture; and Heng: Cooperator, Undergraduate Student, Horticulture
Monograph Title:Breeding, Evaluation and Culture of Buffalograss for Golf Course Turf: [1994 Annual Research Report], 1994.
# of Pages:22
Publishing Information:[Lincoln, Nebraska]: University of Nebraska
Collation:22 pp.
Abstract/Contents:"Status of Vegetative Releases: Sales of '609' are expected to meet Crenshaw & Douget projections of $1.5 million for 1994. Sales are still predominately from their original farm at Bastrop, Texas. Three new farms in Bay City, Poteet, and outside of Dallas, will bring total production in Texas to over 400 acres. A royalty check of over $40,000 was received from sales of '609', for the first half of 1994. Performance of '609' has been excellent. The '609' planted in the rough at the Boulders Golf Course in Lack Acworth, GA seems to be doing well. This course was rated the top new golf course in Georgia in 1994. Approximately $60,000 of '378' plugs were sold by Todd Valley Farms Inc., Mead, NE and $10,000 of '315' plugs were sold of Oak Point, Nickerson, NE during 1994. Status of Seeded Varieties: Native Turf Group will have seed available from two new varieties in 1995. Poor weather and adjustments in planting procedures have resulted in delays in obtaining their first commercial harvest. Sharps Bros. provided seed from six experimentals for our 1994 Evaluation Trial, each a potential new variety. Breeding Work: During 1994, the project focused on improving tolerance to wear and low mowing, insect resistance, and seedling vigor. To evaluate low mowing tolerance, the mowing height of the 1990 evaluation trial was lowered to 5/8 inch in 1993. Significant differences in turf quality were found among entries, indicating that some genotypes were able to better tolerance low mowing. The top ten entries, four male and six female, were selected from this trial and established in a polycross in May 1994 to allow for recombination and the development of a buffalograss variety for fairway use. In order to develop a seeded cultivar with improved seedling vigor, divergent phenotypic recurrent selection for caryopsis size is being performed with two synthetic populations. Larger caryopsis size has been shown to increase seedling vigor in buffalograss. For each populations, three isolated crossing blacks were established with plants derived from either large, small, or unselected caryopses. Burs were harvested from individual maternal plants in each block in early October 1994. For each maternal parent, weight per 100 caryopses will be recorded. Realized heritability estimates will be calculated for selection for large and small caryopsis size. Traffic treatments were applied to two evaluation trials with a traffic simulator. Treatments were applied to half of each plot from June-August 1993. Significant differences were found among selections in their traffic tolerance; '315' and a number of experimentals were among the top performers. For some cultivars, the difference between trafficked and untrafficked halves was minimal. In a trial containing 2000 plants, severe traffic pressure was applied May-July 1994. At the end of the treatments, the 81 most traffic-tolerant plants were selected for further evaluation. Results from the 1993 trial indicate that two of the synthetic populations developed by J. Klingenberg, 90-503 and 90-504, are performing well. It is hoped that one of these will soon be released as a seeded cultivar. Nine vegetative selections were increased in 1994 for possible commercialization. The three with the most potential appear to be 86-61, 91-118, and 86-120. A new replicated evaluation trial, consisting of 48 entries, was also planted in 1994 and a total of 132 new selections were made from our nurseries, native stands or old turfs. Buffalograss Management Studies: Weed Pressure continues to be a major problem during buffalograss establishment. Research was initiated in 1994 to investigate registered and unregistered herbicides for use during seeded buffalograss establishment at two locations in Nebraska and one in Kansas. Plots treated with herbicides of the imidazolinone family (Pursuit, Cadre) showed significantly higher establishment rates than plants treated with other tested herbicides. Additionally, herbicides currently registered for use on established buffalograss (i. e. Dimsenion, Ronstar G, Surflan and Decathal) severely retarded seeded establishment. Pursuit and Image are also being evaluated in a replicated trial on a Crenshaw & Doguet sod farm. Sod strength of 22 entries in the National Buffalograss Trial were evaluated at two locations using an S-beam load cell connected to a digital read-out. Prairie and '609' exhibited superior sod strength, while seeded and diploid entries exhibited unacceptable sod strengths. Root regrowth was also measured on National Trial entries and '609' had superior regrowth. Transplant shock was evaluated for '315' and '378'. '378' exhibited superior recovery characteristics over '315', and sod replanted immediately recovered quicker than sod replanted at 48 hours after harvest. Three antitranspirants tested had no effect on sod recovery. Buffalograss Insect and Disease Research: When a highly significant positive correlation was found between the amount of pubescence and susceptibility to mealybugs (r=0.78), scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate this possible mechanism of resistance. Results suggest that pubescence may provide a framework for the waxy ovisac and a foothold for the mobile first instar. Work is also being done in inheritance of mealybug resistance and developing a seeded, resistant cultivar. Seed has been harvested from a crossing block containing mealybug resistant plants, and seedlings from this crossing block are currently being evaluated for resistance. A study was conducted to develop an effective, non-destructive way to monitor mealybug populations on buffalograss plants. Adhesive-covered "sticky stakes" were placed in pots of mealybug-infested buffalograss to determine if the stakes would trap the mealybugs. Large numbers of mealybugs were captured on the sticky stakes indicating that they can be used to detect mealybugs. Work is underway on the biology and life cycle of these mealybug pests and to determine the role of several parasitic wasp species play in reducing mealybug population levels. Two studies were conducted to evaluate control of buffalograss chinch bugs using Beauvaria bassiana and entomopathogenic nematodes, and combinations of insecticidal soap and reduced rates of conventional insecticides. Severe dollar spot disease occurred on several of our trials and fertility level is being investigated for its effect on disease incidence. Student Progress: Three new students have been recruited to work on graduate programs. Kevin Frank will work on buffalograss management starting in January; Tiffany Heng will work on buffalograss insects starting in June; and Fei Shui Zhang initiated a Ph.D. project on tissue culture of buffalograss in September. Charles Rodgers is making good progress on his Ph.D. project studying buffalograss seed vigor and establishment. Jennifer Johnson-Cicalese will return to graduate student status in January 1, and complete her Ph.D. on resistance to mealybugs in May 1995. Matt Giese will complete his M.S. on sod characterisitics in May 1995."
See Also:See also related summary article, " Breeding, evaluation and culture of buffalograss for golf course turf", 1994 Turfgrass Research Summary [USGA], 1994, pp. 14-17, R=35111. R=35111
Note:Also appears as pp. 00123-00144 in the USGA Turfgrass Research Committee Reporting Binders for 1994.
"USGA Progress Report - Fall 1994"
"A USGA/GCSAA/University of Nebraska Research Project Initiated February, 1993"
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