Full TGIF Record # 310848
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Web URL(s):https://archive.lib.msu.edu/tic/ressum/2019/2019.pdf#page=189
    Last checked: 04/17/2020
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Author(s):Wherley, Benjamin; Bowling, Will; McInnes, Kevin; Provin, Tony; Segars, Chrissie
Author Affiliation:Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
Title:Long-term dynamics and management requirements of sand-capped fairways
Section:Integrated turfgrass management
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Ecophysiology: Soil problems
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Source:Turfgrass and Environmental Research Program: 2019 Research Summaries. 2019, p. 181-188.
Publishing Information:[New York, New York]: The United States Golf Association Green Section
# of Pages:8
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Golf fairway maintenance; Golf fairways; Physical soil analysis; Quality evaluation; Sand capping; Sand particle size; Sodium Adsorption Ratio; Volumetric water content; Water droplet penetration test
See Also:Other Reports from this USGA research project: 2018-08-658
USGA Summary Points:Although traditional soil physical testing methods would likely suggest use of a 20 cm sand-cap based on the particle size distribution of this sand, the highest overall turf quality levels continue to be associated with sand-capping treatment depths of 5 and 10 cm (7 and 6.9 out of 9, respectively). The 20 cm capping depth continues to produce lower turf quality levels through years 4 and 5 (6.1 out of 9) (Fig. 1). The highest soil volumetric water contents within the upper sand-cap (0-7.5 cm depth) are associated with topdressed over time (TD 5 cm) treatments (~29% VWC). The 5 and 10 cm capping depths exhibit intermediate soil moisture levels (~19% VWC), while the 20 cm capping depth supports the least moisture (~13%). The data suggest that wetting agents should not be necessary for shallower capping depths (5 and 10 cm), but significantly improve soil moisture within 20 cm sand-capping depths (Fig. 2). Water droplet penetration time (WDPT) tests performed at the 1.3 cm depth indicate that surface hydrophobicity is primarily a concern only for 20 cm sand-capping depth treatments. No hydrophobicity was observed in wetting-agent treated plots, while WDPT ranged from 80 to 140 seconds in the absence of wetting agent (Fig. 3). Subsoil sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) increases during summer months due to elevated Na in irrigation water (~300 ppm) and decreases during the fall and winter months due to natural rainfall. While the 100 lb. single annual gypsum application was most effective at initially reducing subsoil SAR during the 2018 season, it provided similar SAR reductions to the 10 lbs. monthly gypsum treatment through the 2019 season. Both gypsum treatments offered only marginal reductions in subsoil SAR by the end of the second (2019) season, suggesting that other strategies may need to be considered for impacting subsoil Na levels. (Fig. 4). Over the initial 2 seasons of the study, cultural management treatments have had only marginal impacts on overall turf quality. During late summer and fall of both years, there has been a trend (non-significant) towards improved turf quality in all cultural management treatments relative to the untreated control. (Fig. 5). Surface organic matter levels for the 0-5 cm depth measured at the end of the 2018 season showed a trend of decreasing organic matter with increasing cultural management intensity at the end of the initial season. Percent organic matter ranged from 5.2% (untreated), 5.1% (verticutting), 4.8% (aeration), to 4.7% (verticutting + aeration) at the end of the first season. (Fig. 6).
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Wherley, B., W. Bowling, K. McInnes, T. Provin, and C. Segars. 2019. Long-term dynamics and management requirements of sand-capped fairways. USGA Turfgrass Environ. Res. Summ. p. 181-188.
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